IRA-2008

[ AS PASSED BY THE MAJLIS-E-SHOORA (PARLIAMENT) ]
A
BILL
to consolidate and rationalize the law relating to formation of trade unions, and
improvement of relations between employers and workman
WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and rationalize the law relating to
formation of trade unions, regulation of relations between employers and
workman and the avoidance and settlement of any differences or disputes arising
between them or matters connected therewith and ancillary thereto;
It is hereby enacted as follows:-

PRELIMINARY
1. Short title, extent, application and commencement.- (1) This Act may
be called the Industrial Relations Act, 2008.
(2) It extends to the whole of Pakistan.
(3) It shall apply to all persons employed in any establishment or
industry, but shall not apply to any person employed-
(a) in the Police or any of the Defence Services of Pakistan or
any services or installations exclusively connected with or
incidental to the Armed Forces of Pakistan including an
Ordnance Factory maintained by the Federal Government;
(b) in the administration of the State other than those employed
as workmen by the Railway and Pakistan Post;
(c) as a member of the Security Staff of the Pakistan
International Airlines Corporation, or drawing wages in pay
group, not lower than group V, in the establishment of that
Corporation as the Federal Government may, in the public
interest or in the interest of security of the Airlines, by
notification in the official Gazette, specify in this behalf;
(d) by the Pakistan Security Printing Corporation or the
Security Papers Limited;2
(e) by an establishment or institution for the treatment or care
of sick, infirm, destitute or mentally unfit persons
excluding those run on commercial basis;
(f) as a member of the Watch and Ward, Security or Fire
Service Staff of an oil refinery, an airport or seaport; and
(g) as a member of the Security or Fire Service Staff of an
establishment engaged in the production, transmission or
distribution of natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas.
(4) It shall come into force at once.
2. Definitions.- In this Act unless there is anything repugnant in the subject
or context,-
(i) “arbitrator” means a person appointed as such under section 47;
(ii) “award” means the determination by a Labour Court, Arbitrator or
Appellate Tribunal of any industrial dispute or any matter relating
thereto and includes an interim award;
(iii) “collective bargaining agent” in relation to an establishment or
industry, means the trade union of the workmen which under
section 24, is the agent of workmen in the establishment or, as the
case may be, industry, in the matter of collective bargaining;
(iv) “collective bargaining unit” means those workers or class of
workers of an employer in one or more establishment falling
within the same class of industry whose terms and conditions of
employment are, or could appropriately be, the subject of
collective bargaining together;
(v) “Commission”  means the National Industrial  Relations
Commission constituted under section 25;
(vi) “conciliation proceedings” means any proceedings before a
conciliator;
(vii) “Conciliator” means,-
(a) in respect of disputes which the National Industrial
Relations Commission is competent to adjudicate and
determine, a person appointed as such under sub-section (2)
of section 43; and3
(b) in respect of other disputes, a person appointed as such
under sub-section (1) of that section;
(viii) “employer” in relation to an establishment, means any person or
body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who or which
employs workmen in the establishment under a contract of
employment and includes-
(a) an heir, successor or assign, as the case may be, of such
person or body as aforesaid;
(b) any person responsible for the management, supervision
and control of the establishment;
(c) in relation to an establishment run by or under the authority
of any department of the Federal Government or Provincial
Government, the authority appointed in this behalf or,
where no authority is so appointed, the Head of the
department;
(d) in relation to an establishment run by or on behalf of a local
authority, the officer appointed in this behalf, or where no
officer is so appointed, the chief executive officer of that
authority;
Explanation.- For the purpose of distinction from the
category of “workers” or “workmen”, officers and
employees of a department of the Federal Government or a
Provincial Government or local authority who belong to the
superior, managerial, secretarial, directorial, supervisory or
agency staff and who have been notified for this purpose in
the official Gazette shall be deemed to fall within the
category of “employers”; and
(e) in relation to any other establishment, the proprietor of such
establishment and every director, manager, secretary, agent
or officer or person concerned with the management of the
affairs thereof;
(ix) “establishment” means any office, firm, factory, society,
undertaking, company, shop, premises or enterprise, which
employs workmen directly or through a contractor for the purpose
of carrying on any business or industry and includes all its
departments and branches, whether situated in the same place or in
different places and except in section 30 includes a collective 4
bargaining unit, if any, constituted by any establishment or group
of establishments;
(x) “executive” means the body, by whatever name called, to which
the management of the affairs of a trade union is entrusted by its
constitution;
(xi) “illegal lock-out” means a lock-out declared, commenced or
continues otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of this
Act;
(xii) “illegal strike” means a strike declared, commenced or continues
otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of this Act;
(xiii) “industrial dispute” means any dispute or difference between
employers and employers or between employers and workmen or
between workmen and workmen which is connected with the
employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or
the conditions of work of any person, and is not in respect of the
enforcement of such right guaranteed or accrued to him by or
under any law other than this Act, or any award or settlement for
the time being in force;
(xiv) “industry” means any business, trade, manufacture, calling,
service, employment or occupation of producing goods or services
for sale excluding those set up for charitable purposes;
(xv) “inspector” means an inspector appointed under this Act;
(xvi) “Labour Court” means a Labour Court established under section
52;
(xvii) “lock-out” means the closing of place of employment or part of
such place, or the suspension, wholly or partly, of work by an
employer, or refusal, absolute or conditional, by an employer to
continue to employ any number of workmen employed by him,
where such closing, suspension or refusal occurs in connection
with an industrial dispute or is intended for the purpose of
compelling workmen employed to accept certain terms and
conditions of or affecting employment;
(xviii) “officer” in relation to a trade union, means any member of the
executive thereof but does not include an auditor or legal adviser;5
(xix) “organization” means any organization of workers or of employers
for furthering and defending the interests of workers or of
employers;
(xx) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules;
(xxi) “public utility service” means any of the services  specified in the
Schedule;
(xxii) “registered trade union” means a trade union registered under this
Act;
(xxiii) “Registrar” means a Registrar of trade unions appointed under
section 14;
(xxiv) “rules” means rules made under this Act;
(xxv) “settlement” means a settlement arrived at in the course of a
conciliation proceeding, and includes an agreement between an
employer and his workmen arrived at otherwise than in the course
of any conciliation proceedings, where such agreement is in
writing, has been signed by the parties thereto in such manner as
may be prescribed and a copy thereof has been sent to the
Provincial Government, the Conciliator and such other person as
may be prescribed;
(xxvi) “strike” means a cessation of work by a body of persons employed
in any establishment acting in combination or a concerted refusal,
or refusal under a common understanding of any number of
persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or
to accept employment;
(xxvii) “trade union” means any combination of workmen or employers
formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations
between workmen and employers, or workmen and workmen or
employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on
the conduct of any trade or business and includes a federation of
two or more trade unions;
(xxviii)“Tribunal” means a Labour Appellate Tribunal constituted under
section 55; and
(xxix) “worker” and “workman” mean person not failing within the
definition of employer who is employed (including employment as
a supervisor or as an apprentice) in an establishment or industry for
hire or reward either directly or through a contractor whether the 6
terms of employment express or implied, and, for the purpose of
any proceedings under this Act in relation to an industrial dispute
includes a person who has been dismissed, discharged, retrenched,
laid-off or otherwise removed from employment in connection
with or as a consequence of that dispute or whose dismissal,
discharge, retrenchment, lay-off, or removal has led to that dispute
but does not include any person who is employed mainly in
managerial or administrative capacity.
3. Trade unions and freedom of association.- Subject to the provisions of
this Act and notwithstanding any other law for the time being in force,-
(a) workers, without distinction whatsoever, shall have the right to
establish and, subject to the rules of the organization concerned, to
join international associations of their own choice without previous
authorization:
Provided that no worker shall be entitled to be a member of
more than one trade union at any one time and on joining another
union the earlier membership shall automatically stand cancelled;
(b) employers, without distinction whatsoever, shall have the right to
establish and, subject only to the rules of the organization
concerned, to join international associations of their own choice
without previous authorization;
(c) every trade union and employers association shall frame its own
constitution and rules to elect its representatives in full freedom to
organize its administration and activities and to formulate its
programmes; and
(d) workers’ and employers’ organizations shall have the right to
establish and join federations and confederations and any such
organization, federation or confederation shall have the right to
affiliate with international organizations and confederations of
workers’ and employers’ organizations.
4. Application for registration.- Any trade union may, under the signature
of its President and the Secretary, apply to the Registrar for registration of the
trade union under this Act.
5. Requirements for application.- Every application for registration of
Trade Union shall be made to the Registrar and shall be accompanied by-
(a) a statement showing-7
(i) the name of the trade union and the address of its Head
Office;
(ii) date of formation of the union;
(iii) the titles, names, ages, addresses and occupations of the
officers of the trade union;
(iv) statement of total paid membership;
(v) the name of the establishment or group of establishments,
or the industry, as the case may be, to which the trade union
relates along with a statement of the total number of
workers employed therein;
(vi) the names and addresses of the registered trade unions in
the establishment group of establishments or industry, as
the case may be, to which the union relates; and
(vii) in case of a federation of trade unions, the names, addresses
and registration number of member-unions;
(b) three copies of the constitution of the trade union
together with a copy of the resolution by the
members of the trade union adopting such
constitution bearing the signature of the Chairman
of the meeting;
(c) a copy of the resolution by the members of the trade
union authorizing its President and the Secretary to
apply for its registration; and
(d) in case of a federation of trade unions, a copy of the
resolution from each of the constituent unions
agreeing to become a member of the federation.
6. Requirements for registration.- (1) A trade union shall not be entitled to
registration under this Act unless the constitution thereof provide for the
following matters, namely.-
(a) the name and address of the trade union;
(b) the objects for which the trade union has been formed;
(c) the purposes for which the general funds of the union shall be
utilized;8
(d) the number of persons forming the executive which shall not
exceed the prescribed limit and shall include not less than seventy-
five percent from amongst the workmen actually engaged or
employed in the establishment or establishments or the industry for
which the trade union has been formed;
(e) the conditions under which a member shall be entitle to any benefit
assured by the constitution of the trade union and under which any
fine or forfeiture may be imposed on him;
(f) the maintenance of a list of the members of the trade union and of
adequate facilities for the inspection thereof  by the officers and
members of the trade union;
(g) the manner in which the constitution shall be amended, varied or
rescinded;
(h) the safe custody of the funds of the trade union, its annual audit,
the manner of audit and adequate facilities for inspection of the
account books by the officers and members of the trade union;
(i) the manner in which the trade union may be dissolved;
(j) the manner of election of officers by the general body of the trade
union and the term, not exceeding two years, for which an officer
may hold office upon his election or re-election;
(k) the procedure for expressing no confidence in any officer of the
trade union; and
(l) the meeting of the executive and of the general body of the trade
union so that the executive shall meet at least  once in every three
months and the general body at least once a year.
(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), a trade
union of workmen shall not be entitled to registration under this Act –
(a) unless all its members are workmen actually engaged or
employed in the industry with which the trade union is
connected; and
(b) where there are two or more registered trade unions in the
establishment, group of establishments or industry with
which the trade union is connected, unless it has as its
members not less than one-fifth of the total number of 9
workmen employed in such establishment, group of
establishments or industry, as the case may be.
7. Disqualification for being an officer of a trade union.- Not-
withstanding anything contained in the constitution or rules of a trade union, a
person who has been convicted of offence under section 78 or heinous offence
under the Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860) shall be disqualified from
being elected as, or from being, an officer of  a trade union.
8. Registered trade union to maintain register, etc.-Every registered trade
union shall maintain in such form as may be prescribed-
(a) a register of members showing particulars of subscriptions paid by
each member;
(b) an accounts book showing receipts and expenditure; and
(c) a minute book for recording the proceedings of meetings.
9. Registration.- (1) The Registrar, on being satisfied that the trade union
has complied with all the requirements of this Act, shall register the trade union in
a prescribed register and issue a registration certificate in the prescribed form
within a period of fifteen days from the date of receipt of the application. In case
the application is found by the Registrar to be deficient in a material respect he
shall communicate in writing his objections to the trade union within a period of
fifteen days from the receipt of the application and the trade union shall reply
thereto within a period of fifteen days from the receipt of the objections.
(2) When the objections raised by the Registrar have  been
satisfactorily met, the Registrar shall register the trade union as provided in sub-
section (1) and issue a certificate of registration in the prescribed form within
three days of the date of the objections having been so met. In case the objections
are not satisfactorily met, the Registrar may reject the application.
(3) In case the application has been rejected or the Registrar has
delayed disposal of the application beyond the period of fifteen days provided in
sub-section (1) or has not issued a certificate of registration within a period of
three days as provided in sub-section (2), as the case may be, the trade union may
appeal to the Labour Court who for reasons to be stated in its judgment may pass
an order directing the Registrar to register the trade union and to issue a certificate
of registration or may dismiss the appeal.
(4) Notwithstanding anything constrained in any other provision of
this Act, every alteration made in the constitution of a registered trade union and
every change of its officers shall be notified by registered post by the trade union
to the Registrar within fifteen days of such change.10
(5) The Registrar may refuse to register such change or alteration if it
is in contravention of any of the provisions of this Act, or if it is in violation of the
constitution of the trade union.
(6) Subject to the provision of sub-section (5), every inclusion or
exclusion of any constituent unit of a federation of trade unions shall be notified
by registered post by the federation to the Registrar within fifteen days of such
inclusion or exclusion.
(7) In case there is a dispute in relation to the change of officers of a
trade union, or any trade union is aggrieved by the refusal of the Registrar under
sub-section (5), any officer or member of the trade union may apply or appeal to
the Labour Court, who shall within seven days of receipt of the application or
appeal, as the case may be, pass an order either directing the Registrar to register
the change or alteration in the constitution or in the officers of the trade union or
may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, direct the registrar to hold fresh
elections of the union under his supervision.
10. Transfer, etc., of officer of trade union during pendency of application
for registration.- Save with the prior permission of the Registrar, no officer of a
trade union of workmen shall be transferred, discharged, dismissed or otherwise
punished during the pendency of an application for registration of the trade union
with the Registrar, provided that the union has notified the names of its officers to
be employer in writing.
11. Certificate of registration.- The Registrar, on registering a trade union
under section 9, shall issue a certificate of registration in the prescribed form
which shall be conclusive evidence that trade union has been duly registered
under this Act.
12. Cancellation of registration.- (1) The registration of a trade union shall
be cancelled if the Labour Court so directs upon a complaint in writing made by
the registrar that the trade union has-
(a) contravened or has been registered in contravention of any of the
provisions of this Act or the rules;
(b) contravened any of the provisions of its constitution; or
(c) made in its constitution any provision which is inconsistent with
this Act or the rules.
(2) Where any person who is disqualified under section 7 from being
elected as, or from being, an officer of a trade union is elected as an officer of a
registered trade union, the registration of that trade union shall be cancelled if the 11
Labour court, upon a complaint in writing made in this behalf by the Registrar, so
directs.
(3) The registration of a trade union shall be cancelled by the Registrar
if, after holding such inquiry as he deems fit, he finds that such trade union has
dissolved itself or has ceased to exist.
13. Appeal against cancellation.- Any trade union aggrieved by an order
passed-
(a) by the Labour Court under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of
section 12 may prefer appeal to the Tribunal within thirty days of
the passing of the said order; or
(b) by the Register under sub-section (3) of section 12 may prefer
appeal to the Labour Court within thirty days of the passing of the
said order.
14. Registrar of trade unions.- For the purpose of this Act, the Provincial
Government shall, by notification in the official Gazette, appoint as many persons
as it considers necessary to be Registrars of trade unions and, where it appoints
more than one Registrars, shall specify in the notification the area within which
each one of them shall exercise and perform the powers and functions under this
Act.
15. Powers and functions of Registrar.- The Registrar shall have the
following powers and functions:-
(a) the registration of trade unions under this Act and the maintenance
of a register for the purpose;
(b) to lodge, or authorize any person to lodge, complaints with the
Labour Court or Commission for action, including prosecution,
against trade unions, employers, workers or other persons for any
alleged offence or any unfair labour practice or violation of any
provision of the Act or for expending the funds of a trade union in
contravention of the provisions of its constitution;
(c) the determination of the question as to which one of the trade
unions in an establishment or an industry is entitled to be certified
as the collective bargaining agent in relation to that establishment
or industry;
(d) to inspect the accounts and record of the registered trade unions, or
investigate or hold such inquiry in the affairs of the trade unions as 12
he deems fit either by himself or through any officer subordinate to
him and to authorize him in writing in this behalf; and
(e) such other powers and function as may be prescribed.
16. Incorporation of registered trade union.- (1) Every registered trade
union shall be a body corporate by the name under which it is registered, shall
have perpetual succession and a common seal and the power to contract and to
acquire, hold and dispose of property, both movable and immovable, and shall by
the said name sue or be sued.
(2) The Societies Registration Act, 1860 (XXIV of 1860), the Co-
operative Societies Act, 1925 (W.P.Act VII of 1925) and the Companies
Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984), shall not apply to any registered trade union
and the registration of any trade union under any of these Acts shall be void.
17. Unfair labour practices on the part of employers.- (1) No employer or
trade union of employers and no person acting on behalf of either shall-
(a) impose any condition in a contract of employment seeking to
restrain the right of a person who is a party to such contract to joint
a trade union or continue his membership of a trade union;
(b) refuse to employ or refuse to continue to employ any person on the
ground that such person is, or is not a member or officer of a trade
union;
(c) discriminate against any person in regard to any employment,
promotion, condition of employment or working condition on the
ground that such person is, or is not, a member or officer of a trade
union;
(d) dismiss, discharge, remove from employment or transfer or
threaten to dismiss, discharge or remove from employment or
transfer a workman or injure or threaten to injure him in respect of
his employment by reason that the workman.
(a) is or proposes to become, or seeks to persuade any other
person to become, a member or officer of a trade union; or
(b) participate in the promotion, formation or activities of a
trade union;
(e) induce any person to refrain from becoming, or to cease to be a
member or officer of a trade union, by conferring or offering to 13
confer any advantage on, or by procuring or offering to procure
any advantage for such person or any other person;
(f) compel or attempt to compel any officer of the collective
bargaining agent to arrive at a settlement by unsing intimidation,
coercion, pressure, threat, confinement to a place, physical injury,
disconnection of water, power and telephone facilities and such
other methods;
(g) interfere with or in any way influence the balloting provided for in
section 24;
(h) recruit any new workman during the period of a notice of strick
under section 44 or during the currency of a strike which is not
illegal except where the Conciliator having been satisfied that
complete cessation of work is likely to cause serious damage to the
machinery or installation, has permitted temporary employment of
a limited number of workmen in the section where the damage is
likely to occur;
(i) close down the whole of the establishment in contravention of
Standing Order 11-A of the Industrial and Commercial
Employment (Standing Orders) Ordinance, 1968 (W.P. Ord. VI of
1968); or
(j) Commence, continue, instigate or incite others to take part in , or
expend or supply money or otherwise act in furtherance or support
of, an illegal lockout.
(2)  Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to preclude an
employer from requiring that a person upon his appointment or promotion to
managerial position shall cease to be, and shall be disqualified from being, a
member or officer of a trade union of workmen.
18. Unfair labour practices on the part of a workmen.- (1) No workmen or
other person or trade union of workmen shall-
(a) persuade a workman to join or refrain from joining a trade
union during working hours;
(b) intimidate any person to become, or refrain from becoming,
or to continue to be, or to cease to be a member or officer
of a trade union;
(c) induce any person to refrain from becoming, or cease to be
a member or officer of a trade union, by intimidating or 14
conferring or offering to confer any advantage on, or by
procuring or offering to procure any advantage for such
person or any other person;
(d) compel or attempt to compel the employer to accept any
demand by using intimidation, coercion, pressure threat,
confinement to, or ouster from, a place, dispossession,
assault, physical injury, disconnection of telephone, water
or power facilities or such other methods; or
(e) commence, continue, instigate or incite others to take part
in, or expend or supply money or otherwise act in
furtherance or support of, an illegal strike or a go-slow.
Explanation.- In clause (e) the expression ‘go-slow’ means an
organized, deliberate and purposeful slowing down of normal output, or the
deterioration of the normal quality of work by a body of workmen acting in a
concerted manner, but does not include the slowing down of normal output, or the
deterioration of the normal quality of work which is due to mechanical defect,
breakdown of machinery, failure or defect in power supply or in the supply of
normal materials and spare parts of machinery.
(2) It shall be an unfair practice for a trade union to interfere with a
ballot held under section 24 by the exercise of undue influence, intimidation,
impersonation or bribery through its executive or through any person acting on its
behalf.
19. Law of conspiracy limited in application.- No officer or member of a
registered trade union or a collective bargaining agent as certified by the Registrar
shall be liable to punishment under sub-section (2) of section 120-B of the
Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 (XLV of 1860), in respect of any agreement made
between the members thereof for the purpose of furthering any such object of the
trade union as is specified in its constitution referred to in section 6, unless the
agreement is an agreement to commit an offence, or otherwise violates any other
law for the time being in force.
20. Immunity from civil suit in certain cases.- (1) No suit or other legal
proceedings shall be maintainable in any civil court against any registered trade
union or a collective bargaining agent or any officer or member thereof in respect
of any action done in contemplation or furtherance of an industrial dispute to
which the trade union is a party on the ground only that such act induces some
other person to break a contract of employment, or that it is an interference with
the trade, business or employment of some other person or with the right of some
other person to dispose of his capital or of his labour as he wills.15
(2) A trade union shall not be liable in any suit or other legal
proceedings in any civil court in respect of any tortuous act done in good faith in
contemplation or furtherance of an industrial dispute by an agent of the trade
union if it is proved that such person acted without the knowledge of, or contrary
to express instructions given by, the executive of the trade union.
21. Enforceability of agreement.- Notwithstanding anything contained in
any other law for the time being in force, an agreement between the members of a
trade union shall not be void or voidable by reason only that any of the objects of
the agreement are in restraint of trade:
Provided that nothing in this section shall enable any civil court to
entertain any legal proceedings instituted for the express purpose of enforcing, or
recovering damages for the breach of any agreement concerning the conditions on
which any member of a trade union shall or shall not sell their goods, transact
business or work, employ or be employed.
22. Registration of federation of trade unions.- (1) Any two or more
registered trade unions may, if their respective general bodies so resolved,
constitute a federation by executing an instrument of federation and apply to the
Registrar for the registration of the federation:
Provided that a trade union of workmen shall not join a federation which
comprises a trade union of employers; nor shall a trade union of employers join a
federation which comprises a trade union of workmen.
(2) An instrument of federation referred to in sub-section (1) shall,
among other things, provide for the procedures to be followed by the federated
trade unions and the rights and responsibilities of the federation and the federated
trade union.
(3) An application for the registration of a federation of trade unions
shall be signed by the Presidents of all the trade unions constituting the federation
or by the officers of these trade unions respectively authorized by the trade unions
in this behalf and shall be accompanied by three copies of the instrument of
federation referred to in sub-section (1).
(4) Subject to sub-sections (1), (2) and (3), the provisions of the Act
shall, so far as may be and with the necessary modifications, apply to a federation
of trade unions as they apply to a trade union.
23. Returns.- (1) There shall be sent annually to the Registrar, on or before
such date as may be prescribed, a general statement, audited in the prescribed
manner, of all receipts and expenditure of every registered trade union during the
year ending on the 31st
day of December, next preceding such prescribed date, 16
and of the assets and liabilities of the trade union existing on such 31st
day of
December, as may be prescribed.
(2) Together with the general statement there shall be sent to the
Registrar a statement showing all changes of officers made by the trade union
during the year to which the general statement refers, together also with statement
of the total paid membership and a copy of the constitution of the trade union
corrected up to the date of the dispatch thereof to the Registrar.
(3) A copy of every alteration made in the constitution of a regtistered
trade union and of a resolution of the general body having the effect of a
provision of the constitution, shall be sent to the Registrar within fifteen days of
the making of the alteration or adoption of the resolution.
(4) In case the registered trade union is member of a federation, the
name of the federation shall be given in the annual statement.
24. Collective bargaining agent.- (1) Where there is only one registered trade
union in an establishment or a group of establishments, that trade union shall if it
has as its members not less than one-third of the total number of workmen
employed in such establishment or group of establishments, upon an application
made in this behalf be certified by the Registrar in the prescribed manner to be the
collective bargaining agent for such establishment or group.
(2) Where there are more registered trade unions than one in an
establishment or a group of establishments, the Registrar shall upon an application
made in this behalf by one-fifth of the total number of workmen employed in such
establishment or group of establishments or by the employer or the Government,
hold within fifteen days from the making of the application, a secret ballot to
determine as to which one of such trade unions shall be the collective bargaining
agent for the establishment or group:
Provided that the Registrar may, in the case of a large establishment
having its branches in more than one town, hold the secret ballot within thirty
days from the making of the application:
Provided further that the Registrar shall not entertain any application
under this sub-section in respect of an establishment or group of establishments,
consisting of, or including, a seasonal factory within the meaning of section 4 of
the Factories Act, 1934 (XXV of 1934), unless such application is made during
the month in which the number of workmen employed in such factory in a year is
usually the maximum.
(3) Upon receipt of an application under sub-section (2), the Registrar
shall, by notice in writing call upon every registered trade union in the
establishment or group of establishments to which the application relates-17
(a) to indicate whether it desires to be a contestant in the secret
ballot to be held for determining the collective bargaining
agent in relation to such establishment or group; and
(b) if it so desires, to submit to him within the time specified in
the notice a list of its members showing, in respect of each
member, his parentage, age, the section or department and
the place in which he is employed, his ticket number and
the date of his becoming a member and if union is a
federation of trade unions, a list of its affiliated trade
unions together with a list of members of each such trade
union showing in respect of each such member the said
particulars.
(4) Every employer shall-
(a) on being so required by the Registrar, submit a list of all
workmen employed in the establishment excluding those
whose period of employment in the establishment is less
than three months and showing, in respect of each
workman, his parentage, age, the section or department and
the place in which he is employed, his ticket number and
the date of his employment in the establishment; and
(b) provide such facilities for verification of the lists submitted
by him and the trade unions as the Registrar may require:
Provided that, in computing the period of three months referred to
in clause (a) in the case of a workman employed in a seasonal factory
within the meaning of section 4 of the Factories Act, 1934 (XXV of 1934),
the period during which he was employed in that factory during the
preceding season shall also be taken into account.
(5) The Registrar shall, after verification of the lists submitted
by the trade unions, prepare a list of voters in which shall be included the
name of every workman whose period of employment as computed in
accordance with sub-section (4), is not less than three months and who is a
member of any of the contesting trade unions and shall, at least four days
prior to the date fixed for the poll, send to each of the contesting trade
unions a certified copy of the list of voters so prepared.
(6) Every workman who is a member of any of the contesting
trade unions and whose name appears in the list of voters prepared under
sub-section (5) shall be entitled to vote at the poll to determine the
collective bargaining agent.18
(7) Every employer shall provide all such facilities in his
establishment as may be required by the Registrar for the conduct of the
poll but shall not interfere with, or in any way influence, the voting.
(8) No person shall canvass for vote within a radius of fifty
metres of the polling station.
(9) For the purpose of holding secret ballot to determine the
collective bargaining agent, the Registrar shall-
(a) fix the date for the poll and intimate the same to each of the
contesting trade unions and also to every employer;
(b) on the date fixed for the poll so placed in the polling station
set up for the purpose the ballot boxes which shall be
sealed in the presence of the representatives of the
contesting trade unions as to receive the ballot papers;
(c) conduct the poll at the polling station at which the
representatives of the contesting trade unions shall have the
right to be present;
(d) after the conclusion of the poll and in the presence of such
of the representatives of the contesting trade unions as may
be present, open the ballot boxes and count the votes; and
(e) after the conclusion of the count, certify the trade union
which has received the highest number of votes to be the
collective bargaining agent:
Provided that no trade union shall be certified to be the collective
bargaining agent for an establishment or group of establishments unless the
number of votes received by it is not less than one-third of the total number of
workmen employed in such establishment or group:
Provided further that, if no trade union secures such number of
votes in the first poll, a second poll shall be held between the trade unions which
secure the two highest numbers of votes in the first poll and the trade union which
secures a majority of the votes cast at the second poll shall be certified in the
prescribed manner to be the collective bargaining agent:
Provided further that, if the number of votes secured by two or more trade
unions securing the highest number of votes is equal, further poll hall be held
between them until one of them secures a majority of the votes cast at such further
poll.19
(10) If no trade union indicates under clause (a) of sub-section(3) that it
desires to be a contestant in the secret ballot, the Registrar shall certify the trade
union which has made the application under sub-section (2) to be the collective
bargaining agent.
(11) where a registered trade union has been certified under clause (e)
of sub-section (9) to be the collective bargaining agent for an establishment or
group of establishments, no application for the determination of the collective
bargaining agent for such establishment or group shall be entertained within a
period of two years from the date of such certification except where the
registration of such certification except where the registration of such a registered
trade union is cancelled before the expiration of the period.
(12) A collective bargaining agent may, without prejudice to its own
position, implead as a party to any proceedings under this Act to which it is itself
a party or any federation of trade unions of which it is a member.
(13) The collective bargaining agent in relation to an establishment or
group of establishments shall be entitled to-
(a) undertake collective bargaining with the employer or
employers on matters connected with employment, non-
employment, the term of employment or the conditions of
work other than matters which relate to the enforcement of
any right guaranteed or secured to it or any workman by or
under any law, other than this Act, or any award or
settlement;
(b)  represent all or any of the workmen in any proceeding;
(c) give notice of, and declare, a strike in accordance with the
provisions of this Act; and
(d)  nominate representatives of workmen on the Board of
Trustees of any welfare institutions or Provident Funds and
of the Workers Participation Fund established under the
Companies Profits (Workers Participation) Act, 1968(XII
of 1968).
(14)  The Registrar may authorize in writing an officer to perform all or
any of his functions under this section.
25. National Industrial Relations Commission.- (1) The Federal
Government shall constitute a National Industrial Relations Commission.20
(2)  The Commission shall consist of not less than seven members,
including the Chairman.
(3)  The qualification for appointment as a member or as the Chairman
of the Commission shall be such as may be determined by the Federal
Government.
(4)  The Chairman and other members of the Commission shall be
appointed by the Federal Government.
(5) Two of the members shall be appointed in the prescribed manner
to advise the Chairman, one to represent the employers and the other to represent
industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions and federations at the
national level.
(6)  The Chairman of the Commission may, in addition to the
representatives of workers appointed to the Commission, co-opt, in cases where
he deems it necessary, from amongst workers belonging to federations at the
national level such representatives of workers as he may deem fit.
(7)  The worker’s representative co-opted under sub-section (6) shall be
entitled to such honorarium as the Federal Government may, on the advice of the
Chairman of the Commission, determine.
(8) The following shall be the functions of the Commission,
namely.—
(a) to promote the formation of trade unions of workers within
the same industry whether in establishments within a
Province or in more than one Province and federations of
such trade union;
(b) to promote the formation of federations at the national
level;
(c) to adjudicate and determine a industrial dispute to which an
industry-wise trade union or a federation of such trade
unions is a party and which is not confined to matters of
purely local nature and any other industrial dispute which
is, in the opinion of the Federal Government, of national
importance and is referred to it by that Government;
(d) to register industry-wise trade unions, federations of such
trade unions and federations at the national level;21
(e) to determine the collective bargaining agents amongst
industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions
and federations at the national level;
(f) to try offences punishable under-
(i) section 72 other than sub-section (1) and (6)
thereof; and
(ii) any other section, in so far as they relate to
employers or workers in relation to an industry-wise
trade union, a federation of such trade unions, a
federation at the national level or officers of such
union or federation;
(g) to deal with cases of unfair labour practices specified in
sections 17 and 18 on the part of employers, workers, trade
unions of either of them or persons acting on behalf of any
of them, whether committed individually or collectively, in
the manner laid down under section 41 or section 50 or in
such other way as may be prescribed, and to take, in such
manner as may be prescribed by regulations under section
31, measures calculated to prevent an employer or
workman from committing an unfair labour practice;
(h) to advise Government, industry-wise trade unions and
federations in respect to the education of workers in the
essentials of trade unionism, including education in respect
of their right and obligations, and to secure the provision of
facilities required therefore, and to apportion the cost
thereof between the Provincial and Federal Governments
industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions
and federations at the national level, and the employers, in
such manner as may be considered equitable by the
Commission; and
(i) such other powers and functions as the Federal Government
may, by notification in the official Gazette, assign to it
from time to time.
(9) The Commission may, on the application of a party, or of its own
motion-
(a)  initiate prosecution, trial or proceedings, or take action,
with regard to any matter relating to its functions;22
(b) withdraw from a Labour Court any application,
proceedings or appeal relating to unfair labour practice; or
(c) grant such relief as it may deem fit including interim
injunction.
(10)  For the purpose of dealing with a case of unfair labour practice of
which the Commission is seized, the Commission may-
(a)  proceed directly with  the case;
(b)  ask the Registrar within whose jurisdiction the case has
occurred or is likely to occur to enquire into it and submit a
report; or
(c)  refer the case to a Labour Court within whose jurisdiction
the case has occurred or is likely to occur, either for report
or for disposal.
(11)  The Labour Court to whom the case is so referred shall enquire
into it and, if the  case was referred to it for report, forward its report thereon to
the Commission or, if the case was referred to it for disposal, continue the
proceedings and dispose of the case as if the proceedings had originally
commenced before it and grant such relief as the Commission has the power to
grant.
(12)  Save as provided in sub-sections (11) and (13) no Registrar,
Labour Court or Tribunal shall take any action, or entertain any application or
proceedings, in respect of any matter which falls within the jurisdiction of the
Commission.
(13) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to exclude the jurisdiction
of a Labour Court to entertain cases of unfair labour practices on the part of
employers or workmen, whether individually or collectively:
Provided that no Court, including Labour Court, shall take any action or
entertain any application or proceedings in respect of a case of unfair labour
practice which is being dealt with by the Commission.
Explanation.-In this section and in the succeeding provisions of this Act,
the expressions “industry-wise trade union” “federation of such trade unions” and
“federation at the national level” refer to a trade union membership of which
extends to establishments in more than one Province and a federation of trade
unions whose membership extends to registered trade unions in more then one
Province. 23
26. Benches of the Commission, etc.- (1) The Chairman shall exercise
general superintendence over its affairs.
(2) for the efficient performance  of the functions of the Commission,
the Chairman shall constitute-
(a) a Full Bench of the Commission which shall consist of not
less than three members of the Commission; and
(b)  as many other Benches of the Commission consisting of
one or more members of the Commission as he may deem
fit.
(3)  The Benches shall-
(a) in relation to cases based on allegations of unfair labour
practices brought before the Commission for trial of
offences, or enforcement of, or for redress of individual
grievances in respect of, any right guaranteed or secured to
any employer or worker by or under any law or any award
or settlement, perform such functions and exercise such
powers as are performed and exercised by a Labour Court;
and
(b)  in relation to industry-wise trade unions, federations of
such trade unions, federations at the national level and
cases referred to the Commission, perform such functions
and exercise such powers as are performed and exercised
by a Registrar, a Labour Court or a Tribunal in relation to
trade unions and federations of trade unions within a
Province,
and, for this purpose, any reference in this Act to a “Registrar”, “Labour Court”,
or as the case may be, “Tribunal” shall be deemed to be a reference to the
appropriate Bench of the Commission to which such functions are assigned:
Provided that, in the performance of those functions and in the exercise of
those powers, the Benches shall, unless otherwise provided in this Act, follow the
procedure laid down in the regulations to be made under section 31.
(4) if any member of the Commission is absent from, or is otherwise
unable to attend any sitting of the commission or of a Bench consisting of more
than one members of which he is a member, the proceedings of the Commission
or  Bench may continue, and the decision or award may be given or judgment or
sentence may be passed in the absence of such member, and no act, proceedings,
decision, or award of the Commission or Bench shall be invalid or be called in 24
question merely on the ground of such absence or of the existence of vacancy in
or any defect in the constitution of the Commission or Bench.
(5) if the members of a Bench differ in opinion as to the decision to be
given on any point,-
(a) the point shall be decided according to the opinion of the
majority, if there is a majority; and
(b) If the members are equally divided, they shall state, the
point on which they differ and the case shall be referred by
them to the Chairman for hearing on such point by one or
more of the other members of the Commission, and such
point shall be decided according to the opinion of the
majority of the members of the Commission who have
heard the case, including those who first heard it:
Provided that if, upon any matter requiring the decision of a Bench which
includes the Chairman of the Commission as one of its members, there is a
difference of opinion among its members and the members so constituting the
Bench are equally divided, the opinion of the Chairman shall prevail and the
decision of the Bench hall be expressed in terms of the views of the chairman.
(6) Any order or decision made, award given, sentence passed, power
exercised, functions performed or proceedings taken by any Bench of the
Commission in accordance with-this Act and the order constituting the Bench
shall be deemed to be the order or decision made, award given, sentence passed,
power exercised, functions performed or proceedings taken, as the case may be,
by the Commission.
Explanation.- In this section, the expression “The Chairman of the
Commission” includes such member of the Commission to be known as Senior
Member as the Chairman may nominate to perform the functions, and exercise the
powers of the Chairman during his absence.
27. Additional powers of the Commission.- In  addition to powers
which the Commission has under section 26-
(a) the Commission shall have power to punish any person
who obstructs or abuses its process or disobeys any of its
orders or directions, or does anything which tends to
prejudice the case of a party before it, or tends to bring it or
any of its members in relation to proceedings of the
Commission into hatred or contempt, or does anything
which, by law, constitutes contempt of Court, with simple
imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine 25
which may extend to fifty thousand rupees, or with both
and
(b) for the purposes of any investigation, enquiry or
adjudication to be made by the commission under this Act,
the Chairman or any member of the commission may at any
time between the hours of sunrise and sunset, and any other
person authorized in writing by the Chairman or any
member of the Commission in this behalf may, after he has
given reasonable notice, enter any building, factory,
workshop or  other place or premises whatsoever and
inspect the same or any work, machinery, appliance or
article therein or interrogate any person therein in respect
of anything situated therein or any matter relevant to
matters before the Commission.
28. Appeals.-(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, or in
any other law for the time being in force, any person aggrieved by an award or
decision given or a sentence or order determining and certifying a collective
bargaining unit passed by any Bench of the Commission, other than a Full Bench,
may, within thirty days of such award, decision, sentence or order prefer an
appeal to Commission.
(2) An appeal preferred to the Commission under sub-section (1) shall
be disposed of by the full Bench of the Commission which shall,-
(a) if the appeal is from an order determining and certifying a
collective bargaining unit, have the power to confirm, set
aside, vary or modify such an order; and
(b) if the appeal relates to any other matter, have the same
power in relation to the appeal as the Labour Court, the
Tribunal or the High Court, as the case may be, would have
had if the matter to which the appeal relates were a matter
in relation to which an appeal can be preferred to the
Labour Court, the Tribunal or the High Court.
29. Finality of order.- No court shall entertain any plea as to the
jurisdiction of  the Commission or as the legality or propriety of anything done or
purporting to be done by the commission or any of its Benches, and no order,
decision, judgment or sentence of the Commission shall be called in question in
any manner, whatsoever, in or before any Court or other authority.
30. Determination, etc., of collective bargaining unit.- (1) Where the
Commission, on an application made in this behalf, by a trade union of Workmen
or a federation of such trade unions, or on a reference made by the Federal 26
Government, after holding such inquiry as it deems fit, is satisfied that for
safeguarding the interest of the workmen employed in an establishment or group
of establishments belonging to the same employer and the same industry, in
relation to collective bargaining, it is necessary, just and feasible to determine one
or more collective bargaining units of  such workmen in such establishment or
group, it may, having regard to the distribution of workers, existing boundaries of
the components of such establishment, or group, facilities of communication,
general convenience, sameness or similarity of economic activity and other
cognate factors,-
(a) determine and certify one or more collective bargaining units in
such establishment or group;
(b)  Specify the modifications which, in consequence of the decision
under this section, will take effect in regard to the registration of
the trade unions and federations of trade unions affected by such
decision and certification of collective bargaining agents among
such unions and federations, nomination or election of shop
stewards, and workers’ representatives for participation in the
management of the factories, if any, affected by such decision;
(c)  specify the date or dates from and the period, for which all or any
of such changes shall take effect:
Provided that the date so specified shall not be a date
falling within the period of two years specified in sub-section (11)
of section 24 in its application to a collective bargaining agent
certified in respect of an establishment or establishments:
Provided further that, after the receipt of a reference for
determination of a collective bargaining unit, the Commission may
stop or prohibit the proceedings to determine collective bargaining
agent  under section 24 for any establishment or group of
establishments which is likely to be affected by a decision under
this section,
(d) take such measures or issue such directions to the Registrar
as may be necessary to give effect to such modifications;
and
(e) determine and certify a collective bargaining agent for each
such unit in accordance with section 24 in so far as
applicable and with the necessary modifications, if such a
unit relates to more than one province, or direct the
Registrar to take such action, if such a unit relates to only
one province.27
(2) Where the commission issues any directions to the Registrar under
this section, the Registrar shall comply with them within such period as the
Commission may from time to time determine.
(3) After the certification of a collective bargaining unit, no trade
union shall be registered in respect of that unit except for the whole of such unit
and no certification or proceedings for determination of collective bargaining
agent under section 24 shall take place for a part of a collective bargaining unit or
a group of collective bargaining units.
(4) an order of the Commission under this section shall have effect
notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Act.
31.  Power to make regulations.- (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the
commission may, with the prior approval of the Federal Government, make such
regulations relating to its procedure and the performance of its functions as it may
deem fit, and the regulations shall have effect notwithstanding anything
inconsistent therewith contained in the Qanun-e- Shahadat, 1984 (P.O.10 of
1984), the Code of Criminal procedure, 1898 (Act V of 1898), the code of Civil
Procedure, 1908 (Act  V of 1908) or any other law for the time being in force.
(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the
foregoing power, such regulations may provide for all or any of the following
matters, namely:-
(a) registration of industry-wise trade unions, federations of
such trade unions and federations at the national level, and
the procedure, for such registration;
(b) determination of collective bargaining units;
(c) determination of collective bargaining agent from amongst
the industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade
unions or, as the case may be, federations at the national
level, and the procedure therefore;
(d)  procedure, including rules of evidence, for adjudication of
industrial dispute;
(e) procedure, including rules of evidence, for trial of offences;
(f)  procedure for dealing with unfair labour practices;
(g) superintendence of the Chairman over the affairs of the
Commission;28
(h)  forms of registers, processes and returns in respect  of
matters relating to the functions of the Commission; and
(i)  fixing of places and times of its sitting and deciding
whether to sit in public or in private.
32.  Check off.- (1) if a collective bargaining agent so requests, the employer
of the workmen who are members of a trade union shall deduct from the wages of
the workmen such amounts towards their subscription to the funds of the trade
union as may be specified, with the approval of each individual workman named
in the demand statement furnished by the trade union.
(2) An employer making any deductions under sub-section (1) shall,
within fifteen days of the end of the period for which the deduction have been
made, deposit the entire amount so deducted by him in the account of the trade
union on whose behalf he has  made the deductions.
(3) A collective bargaining agent shall maintain with a branch of the
National Bank of Pakistan or with a Post Office Savings Bank an account to
which shall be credited the entire amount deducted by the employer under sub-
section (1) from the wages of the members of the trade union.
(4) The employer shall provide facilities to the collective bargaining
agent for ascertaining whether deductions from the wages of its members are
being made under sub-section (1).
33. Shop steward to act as link between labour and management.-
(1) in every establishment in which fifty or more workmen are employed, shop
stewards, from amongst the workmen in a shop, section or department of the
establishment, shall,—
(a) where there is a collective bargaining agent in the
establishment, be nominated by it, or
(b) where there is no collective bargaining agent in the
establishment, be elected  at a secret ballot held in the
prescribed manner.
(2) The employer shall provide all such facilities in his establishment
as may be required for the holding of a ballot under sub-section (1) but shall not
interfere with, or in any way influence, the voting.
(3) A shop steward shall hold office for a period of one year from the
date of his election or nomination as the case may be.29
(4) Any dispute arising out of, or in connection with, the election of a
shop steward shall be referred to the Registrar whose decision shall be final and
binding on all parties to the dispute.
(5) The shop steward shall act as a link between the workers and the
employer, assist in the improvement of arrangements for the physical working
conditions and production work in the shop section or department for which he is
elected and help workers in the settlement of their problems either connected with
work or with any such individual grievance of a workman as is referred to in sub-
section (1) of section 41.
34. Workers participation in management.- (1) in every factory employing
fifty persons or more there shall be elected or nominated workers’ representatives
to participate to the extent of fifty per cant in the management of the factory:
Provided that there shall be elected or nominated at least one worker’s
representative to participate in the management of such factory:
Provided further that, for the purpose of determining the number of
workers’ representatives in the management of a factory, fractions equal to, or
greater than one half shall be regarded as one and lesser fractions shall be ignored.
(2) The workers’ representatives shall be workmen employed in the
same factory and shall,-
(a) where there is a collective bargaining agent in the factory,
be nominated by it, or
(b) where there is no collective bargaining agent in the factory,
be elected by simple majority at a secret ballot by all
workmen employed in the factory.
(3) The workers’ representatives shall hold office for a period of two
years from the date of their election or nomination, as the case may be,
(4) The workers’ representatives shall participate in all the meetings of
the management committee constituted in the prescribed manner and all matters
relating to the management of the factory, except commercial and financial
transaction may be discussed in such meetings.
(5) The management shall not take any decision in the following
matters without the advice in writing of the workers’ representatives, namely:-
(a) framing of services rules and policy about promotin and
discipline of workers;30
(b) changing physical working conditions in the factory;
(c)  in-service training of workers;
(d)  recreation and welfare of workers;
(e) regulation of daily working hours and breaks;
(f) preparation of leave schedule; and
(g) matters relating to the order and conduct of workers within
the factory.
(6) The workers’ representatives may on their own initiative give
advice in writing concerning the matters specified in sub-section (5) and, where
they do so, the management shall convene a meeting within two weeks of the
receipt of the advice to discuss its merits with them.
(7) The management shall give reply to the workers’ representatives
within six weeks of the receipt of their advice given under sub-section (5) or sub-
section (6) and any such advice shall not be rejected except by the person holding
the highest position in the management of the factory.
(8) In case the advice of the workers’ representatives is rejected by the
management of the factory, the matter may, within fifteen days of the advice
being so rejected, be taken up by the collective bargaining agent in the Works
Council for bilateral negotiations and thereupon the provisions of section 42 shall
apply as they apply to the settlement of an industrial dispute in relation to which
the views of the employer or the collective bargaining agent have been
communicated to the Works Council under sub-section (1) of that section.
35. Joint management board.- (1) Every company which owns or manages a
factory, and in every factory which is not so owned or managed, and which
employs fifty persons or more, the management shall, in the prescribed manner
set up a joint management board in which the Workers’ participation shall be to
the extent of thirty per cent.
(2) The employer’s representatives on the joint management board
shall be from amongst the Directors or senior executives and the workers’
representatives shall be workmen employed in the factory.
(3) The joint management board shall look after the following matters,
namely:-

(a) improvement in production , productivity and efficiency;31
(b) fixation of job and piece-rates;
(c) planned regrouping or transfer of the workers;
(d) laying down the principles of remuneration and
introduction of new remuneration methods; and
(e) provision of minimum facilities for such of the workers
employed through contractors as are not covered by the
laws relating to welfare of workers.
(4) The joint management board may call for reasonable information about
the working of the company or factory from its management and the management
shall supply the information called for.
(5) The joint management board shall meet at such intervals as may be
prescribed.
(6) The workers’ representative shall hold office for such period as may be
prescribed.
(7) In this section,-
(a) “company” has the same meaning as in the Companies Ordinance,
1984 (XLVII of 1984); and
(b) “ management” means the employer.
36. Inspector.- (1) The inspectors appointed under section 10 of the Factories
Act, 1934 (XXV of 1934), and such other persons, not being Conciliators
appointed under this Act, as the Provincial Government may, by notification in
the official Gazette appoint, shall be inspectors for ensuring compliance with the
provisions of section 34 and section, 35 within the local limits assigned to each.
(2) The inspector may-

(a) at all reasonable hours enter on any premises and make
such examination of any register and document relating to
the provisions of section 34 and section 35 and take on the
spot or otherwise such evidence of any person, and exercise
such other powers of inspection, as he may deem necessary
for discharging his duty;
(b) call for such information from the management as he may
deem necessary for the discharge of his functions and the 32
management shall provide the information called for within
such period as may be specified by him; and
(c) make a report in writing to the Registrar having jurisdiction
of any offence punishable under section 37.
(3) Every inspector shall be deemed to be a public servant within the
meaning of section 21 of the Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 (XLV of 1860).
37. Penalty for obstructing inspector.- Whoever willfully obstructs an
inspector in the exercise of any power under section 36, or fails to produce on
demand by an inspector any register or other document in his custody relating to
the provisions of section  34 and section 35 or the rules, or conceals or prevents
any  worker  in a factory from appearing before or being examined by  an
inspector, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to fifty thousand
rupees.
38. Penalty for contravening section 34 or section 35, etc.- (1) Whoever
contravenes the provisions of section 34 or section 35 shall be punishable with
fine which may extend to seventy-five thousand rupees.

(2) No Court shall take cognizance  of any  offence punishable under
sub-section (1) except upon a complaint in writing made by the Registrar.
39. Works Council.- (1) In every establishment in which fifty or more
workmen are employed or were  employed on any day in the preceding twelve
months, the employer shall constitute, in the prescribed manner, a Works Council
consisting of representatives  of the employer and  the workmen so however that
the number of the representatives of the workmen is not less than the number of
the representatives of the employer in the Works Council.
(2) In the case of an establishment where there are one or more trade
unions, the collective bargaining agent shall nominate the representatives of the
workmen on such Works Council:
Provided that where there is no collective bargaining agent,
representatives of workmen on Works Council shall be chosen in the prescribed
manner from amongst the workmen engaged in the establishment for which the
Works Council is constituted.
40. Functions of Works Council.- The functions of  Works Council shall be
to  promote measures for securing and preserving good relations between an
employer and his workmen and, in particular-
(a) to endeavor to maintain continuous sympathy and understanding
between the employer and the workmen;33
(b) To promote settlement of differences and disputes through bilateral
negotiations;
(c) to promote security of employment for the workmen and
conditions of safety, health and job satisfaction in their work;
(d) to take measures for facilitating good and harmonious working
conditions in  the establishment; to provide educational facilities
for children of workmen in secretarial and accounting procedures
and to promote their absorption in these departments of the
establishment; and
(e) to discuss any other matter of mutual interest with a view to
promoting better labour-management relations.
41. Redress of individual grievances.- (1) A worker may bring his grievance
in respect of any right guaranteed or secured to him by or under any law or any
award or settlement for the time being in force to the notice of his employer in
writing, either himself or through his shop steward or collective bargaining agent
within three months of the day on which the cause of such grievance arises.
(2) Where a worker himself brings his grievance to the notice of the
employer, the employer shall, within fifteen days of the grievance being brought
to his notice, communicate his decision in writing to the worker.
(3) Where a worker brings his grievance to the notice of his employer
through his shop steward or collective bargaining agent, the employer shall,
within seven days of the grievance being brought to his notice, communicate his
decision in writing to the shop steward or as the case may be the collective
bargaining agent.
(4) If the employer fails to communicate a decision within the period
specified in sub-section (2) or, as the case may be sub-section (3), or if the worker
is dissatisfied with  such decision, the worker or the shop steward may take the
matter to his collective bargaining agent or the Labour Court or, as the case may
be, the collective bargaining agent may take the matter to the Labour Court, and
where the matter is taken to the Labour Court, it shall give a decision within seven
days from the date of the matter being brought before it as if such matter were an
industrial dispute:
Provided that a worker who desires to so take the matter to the Labour
Court shall do so within a period of two months from the date of the
communication of the employer or, as the case may be, from the expiry of the
period mentioned in sub-section (2),  or sub-section (3), as the case may be.34
(5) In adjudicating and determining a grievance under sub-section (4),
the Labour Court shall go into all the facts of the case and pass such orders as
may be just and proper in the circumstances of the case.
(6) If a decision under sub-section (4) or an order under sub-section
(5) given by the Labour Court or a decision of the Tribunal in an appeal against
such a decision or order is not given effect to or complied with within  a week or
within the period specified in such order or decision, the defaulter shall be
punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with
fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees, or with both.
(7) No person shall be prosecuted under sub-section (6) except on a
complaint in writing-
(a)  by the workman if the order or decision in his favour is not
implemented within the period specified therein; or
(b)  by the Labour Court or Tribunal, if an order or decision
thereof is not complied with.
(8) For the purposes of this section, workers having common
grievance arising out of a common cause of action may make a joint application
to the Labour Court.
42. Negotiations relating to differences and disputes.-(1) If at any time an
employer or a collective bargaining agent finds that an industrial dispute has
arisen or is likely to arise, the employer or,  as the case may be, the collective
bargaining agent, may communicate his or its views in writing either to the Works
Council or to the other party so, however, that, where the views are so
communicated to the  Works Council, a copy of the communication   shall also be
sent to the other party.
(2)  On receipt of the communication under sub-section (1) the  Works
Council or the party receiving it shall try to settle the dispute by bilateral
negotiations within ten days of receipt of the communication or within such
further period as may be agreed upon by the parties and, if the parties reach a
settlement,  a memorandum of settlement shall be recorded in writing and signed
by both the parties and a copy thereof shall be forwarded to the Conciliator and
the authorities mentioned in clause (xxv) of section 2.
(3) Where a settlement is not reached between the employer and the
collective bargaining agent or, if the views of the employer or collective
bargaining agent have been communicated under sub-section (1) to the Works
Council, there is a failure of bilateral negotiations in the Works Council, the
employer or the collective bargaining agent may, within seven days from the end
of the period referred to in sub-section (2), serve on the  other party to the dispute35
a  notice of lock-out or strike, as the case may be, in accordance with the
provisions of this Act.
43. Conciliator.- (1) The Provincial Government shall, by notification in the
official  Gazette, appoint as many persons as it considers necessary to be
Conciliators for the purposes of this Act and shall specify in the notification the
area within which, or the class of  establishments or industries in relation to
which, each one of them shall perform his functions.
(2) The Federal Government may, by notification in the official
Gazette, appoint as many persons as it considers necessary to act as Conciliators
in such disputes as the National Industrial Relations Commission is competent to
adjudicate and determine under this Act.
44. Notice of strike or lock-out.- The period of a notice of lock-out or strike
given under sub-section (3) of section 42 shall be fourteen days.
45. Conciliation after notice of strike or lock-out.- Where a party to an
industrial dispute serves a notice of strike or lock-out under section 42, it shall,
simultaneously with the service of such notice, deliver a copy thereof to the
Conciliator who shall proceed to conciliate in the dispute and to the Labour Court.
46. Proceedings before Conciliator.- (1) The Conciliator shall, as soon as
possible, call a meeting of the parties to the dispute for the purpose of bringing
about a settlement.
(2) The parties to the dispute shall be represented before the
Conciliator by persons nominated by them and authorized to negotiate and enter
into an agreement binding on the parties:
Provided that if, in the opinion of the Conciliator, the presence of the
employer or any officer of the trade union connected with the dispute is necessary
in a meeting called by him, he shall give notice in writing requiring the employer
or such officer to appear in person before him at the place, date and time,
specified in the notice and it shall be the duty of the employer or the officer of the
trade union to comply with the notice.
(3) The Conciliator shall perform such functions in relation to a
dispute before him as may be prescribed and may, in particular, suggest to either
party to the dispute such concessions or modifications in its demand as are in the
opinion of the Conciliator likely to promote an amicable settlement of the dispute.
(4) If a settlement of the dispute or of any matter in dispute is arrived
at in the course of the proceedings before him, the Conciliator shall send a report
thereof to the Provincial Government together with a memorandum of settlement
signed by the parties to the dispute.36
(5)  If no settlement is arrived at within the period of the notice of
strike or look-out, the conciliation proceedings may be continued for such further
period as may be agreed upon by the parties.
47. Arbitration.- (1) If the conciliation fails, the Conciliator shall try to
persuade the parties to agree to refer the dispute to an arbitrator. In case the
parties agree, they shall make a joint request in writing for reference of the
dispute to an arbitrator agreed upon by them.
(2)  The arbitrator to whom a dispute is referred under sub-section (1)
may be a person borne on a panel to be maintained by the Provincial Government
or any other person agreed upon by the parties.
(3)  The arbitrator shall give his award within a period of thirty days
from the date on which the dispute is referred to him under sub-section (1) or such
further period as may be agreed upon by the parties to the dispute.
(4)  After he has made an award, the arbitrator shall forward a copy
thereof to the parties and to the Provincial Government who shall cause it to be
published in the official Gazette.
(5) The award of the arbitrator shall be final and no appeal shall lie
against it. It shall be valid for a period not exceeding two years, as may be fixed
by the arbitrator.
48. Strike and lock-out.- (1) If no settlement is arrived at during the
course of conciliation proceedings and the parties to the dispute do not agree to
refer it to an arbitrator under section 47, the workmen may go on strike or, as the
case may be, the employer may declare a lock-out, on the expiration of the period
of the notice under section 44 or upon a declaration by the Conciliator that the
conciliation proceedings have failed, whichever is the later.
(2) The party raising a dispute may at any time either before or after
the commencement of a strike or lock-out make an application to the Labour
Court for adjudication of the dispute.
(3)  Where a strike or lock-out lasts for more than thirty days, the
Federal Government, if it relates to a dispute which the Commission is competent
to adjudicate and determine, and the Provincial Government, if it relates to any
other dispute, may by order in writing, prohibit the strike or lock-out:
Provided that the Federal Government may, with respect to a strike or
lock-out relating to a dispute which the Commission is competent to a adjudicate
and determine and the Provincial Government, with the previous approval of the
Federal Government, may, with respect to any other strike or lock-out, by order in 37
writing, prohibit a strike or lock-out at any time before the expiry of thirty days, if
it is satisfied that the continuance of such a strike or lock-out is causing serious
hardship to the community or is prejudicial to the national interest.
(4) In any case in which the Federal Government or the Provincial
Government prohibits a strike or lock-out, it shall forthwith refer the dispute to
the Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour Court.
(5)  The Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour Court shall,
after giving both the parties to the dispute an opportunity of being heard, make
such award as it deems fit as expeditiously as possible but not exceeding thirty
days from the date on which the dispute referred to it:
Provided that the Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour Court
may also make an interim award on any matter in dispute:
Provided further that any delay by the Commission or, as the case may be,
the Labour Court in making an award shall not affect the validity of any award
made by it.
(6)  An award of the Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour
Court shall be for such period as may be specified in the award which shall  not
be more than two years.
49. Strike or lock-out in public utility services.- (1) The Federal
Government, in the case of a strike or lock-out relating to-
(a) an industrial dispute of national importance; or
(b) an industrial dispute in respect of any of the public utility
services,
which the Commission is competent to adjudicate and determine, and the
Provincial Government in the case of a strike or lock-out relating to an industrial
dispute in respect of any of the public utility services which the Commission is
not competent to adjudicate and determine, may, by order in writing, prohibit a
strike or lock-out at any time before or after the commencement of the strike or
lock-out.
(2) The provisions of sub-sections (4), (5) and (6) of section 48 shall
also apply to an order made under sub-section (1) above as they apply to an order
made under sub-section (3) of that section.
50. Application to Labour Court.-Any collective bargaining agent or any
employer may apply to the Labour Court for the enforcement of any right
guaranteed or secured to it or him by or under any law or any award or settlement.38
51. Raising of industrial dispute by federation.- (1) Notwithstanding
anything  contained in this Act, a federation of industry-wise trade unions or
federation at the national level may, if it is a collective bargaining agent raise an
industrial dispute affecting all employers or workers of the establishments
represented by that federation and a decision of the Commission shall be binding
on all such employers and workers.
(2)  No collective bargaining agent shall, at any time when a decision
of the Commission in respect of any matter is effective, be entitled to raise a
demand relating to that matter.
52. Labour Court.- (1) The Provincial Government may, by notification in
the official Gazette, establish as many Labour Courts as it considers necessary
and, where it  establishes more than one Labour Court, shall  specify in the
notification the territorial limits within which or the industries or classes of cases
in respect of which, each one of them shall exercise jurisdiction under this Act.
(2)  A Labour Court shall consist of one Presiding Officer appointed by
the Provincial Government.
(3)  A person shall not be qualified for appointment  as Presiding
Officer unless he has been or is, or is a District Judge or an Additional District
Judge:
Provided that the Provincial Government of Baluchistan may,  after
consultation with the Federal Government, appoint any person not so qualified to
be the Presiding Officer of a Labour Court.
(4)        A Labour Court shall-
(a) adjudicate and determine an industrial dispute which has
been referred to, or brought before it under this  Act;
(b)   enquire into and adjudicate any matter relating to the
implementation or violation of a settlement which is
referred to it by the Provincial Government;
(c)     try offences under this Act and such other offences under
any other law as the Provincial Government may, by
notification in the official Gazette, specify in this behalf;
and
(d)      exercise and perform such other powers and functions as are
or may be conferred upon or assigned to it by or under this
Act or any other law.39
53. Procedure and powers of Labour Court.- (1) Subject to the
provisions of this Act, while trying an offence a Labour Court shall follow as
nearly as possible summary procedure as prescribed under the Code of Criminal
Procedure, 1898 (V of 1898).
(2)  A Labour Court shall, for the purpose of adjudicating and
determining any industrial dispute, be deemed to be a Civil Court and shall have
the same powers as are vested in such Court under the Code of Civil Procedure,
1908 (Act V of 1908), including the powers of-
(a) enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath;
(b) compelling the production of documents and material objects; and
(c) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or
documents.
(3)   A Labour Court shall, for the purpose of trying an offence under
this Act or the Industrial and Commercial Employment (Standing Orders)
Ordinance, 1968 (W.P. Ordinance VI of 1968) have the same powers as are
vested in the Court of a Magistrate of the first class specially empowered under
section 30 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (V of 1898).
(4) No court fee shall be payable for filing, exhibiting or recording any
document in, or obtaining any document from,  a Labour Court.
(5)  If the parties to a case, at any time before a final order is passed by
the Labour Court satisfy the Labour Court that the matter has been resolved by
them amicably and  that there are sufficient grounds for withdrawing the case, it
may allow such withdrawal.
54. Awards and decisions of Labour Court.- (1) An award or decision of a
Labour Court shall be given in writing and delivered in open Court and two
copies thereof shall be forwarded, forthwith to the Provincial Government,
provided that if the Federal Government be a party, two copies of the award or
decision shall be forwarded to that Government as well.
(2) The Provincial Government shall, within  a period of one month
from the receipt of the copies  of the award or decision, publish it in the official
Gazette.
(3)  Any party aggrieved by an award given under sub-section (1) or a
decision given under section 41 or section 50 or a sentence passed under clause
(c) of sub-section (4) of section 52 may prefer an appeal to the Labour Appellate 40
Tribunal within thirty days of the delivery or passing thereof and the decision of
the Tribunal in such appeal shall be final.
(4)  Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, all decisions of,
and all sentences passed by a Labour Court, shall be final and shall not be called
in question in any manner by or before any Court or other authority.
55. Labour Appellate Tribunal.- (1) The Provincial Government may, by
notification in the official Gazette, constitute as many Tribunals consisting of one
member as it may consider necessary and, where it constitutes more than one
Tribunal, shall specify in the notification the territorial limits within which or the
class of cases in relation to which, each one of them shall exercise jurisdiction
under this Act.
(2)  The member of the Tribunal shall be a person who is  or has been a
Judge or an Additional Judge of a High Court, and shall be appointed on such
terms and conditions as Government may determine.
(3)  The Tribunal may, on appeal, confirm, set aside, vary or  modify
the award or decision given under section 41 or section 51 or a sentence passed
under clause (c) of  sub-section (4) of  section 52 and shall exercise all the powers
conferred by this Act to the Court, save as otherwise provided. The decision of the
Tribunal shall be delivered as expeditiously as possible, within a period of sixty
days following the filing of the appeal, provided such decision shall not be
rendered invalid by reason of any delay in its delivery.
(4)  The Tribunal may, on its own motion at any time, call for the
record of any case or proceedings under this Act in which a Labour Court within
its jurisdiction has passed an order for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the
correctness, legality, or propriety of such order, and may pass such order in
relation thereto as it thinks fit:
Provided that no order under this sub-section shall be passed revising or
modifying any order adversely affecting  any person  without giving such person
a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
(5) The Tribunal shall follow such procedure as may be prescribed.
(6) The Tribunal shall have authority to punish for contempt of its
authority, or that of any Labour Court subject to its appellate jurisdiction, as if it
were a High Court.
(7) Any person convicted and sentenced by the Tribunal under sub-
section (6) to imprisonment for any period, or to pay a fine exceeding fifteen
thousand rupees, may prefer an appeal to the High Court.41
(8) A Tribunal may, on its own motion or on the application of a
Party, transfer any application or proceeding from a Labour Court within its
jurisdiction to any other such Labour Court.
(9) Notwithstanding  anything contained in sub-section (3) if  in  an
appeal preferred to it against the order of a Labour Court directing the re-
instatement of a workman, the Tribunal makes an order staying the operation of
the order of the Labour Court, the Tribunal shall decide such appeal within twenty
days of its being preferred:
Provided that, if such appeal is not decided within the period aforesaid, the
order of the Tribunal shall stand vacated on the expiration of that period.
56. Settlements and awards on whom binding.- (1) A settlement arrived at
in the course of a conciliation proceedings, or otherwise between the employer
and the collective bargaining agent or an award of an arbitrator prescribed under
section 47, or an award or decision of a Labour Court delivered under section 54
or the decision of the Tribunal under section 55 shall-
(a) be binding on all parties to the industrial dispute;
(b) be binding on all other parties summoned to appear in any
proceedings     before a Labour Court as parties to the industrial
dispute, unless the Court specifically otherwise directs in respect of
any such party;
(c) be binding on the heirs, successors or assignees of the employer in
respect of the establishment to which  the industrial dispute relates
where an employer is one of the parties to the dispute; and
(d) where a collective bargaining agent is one of the parties to the
dispute, be binding on all workmen who were employed in the
establishment or industry to which the industrial dispute relates on
the date on which the dispute first arose or who are employed
therein after that date:
Provided that, where a collective bargaining agent or  a trade union
performing the functions of a  collective bargaining agent under section 71 exists,
the employer shall not enter into a settlement with any other trade union, and any
contravention of this provision shall be deemed to be an unfair labour practice
under section 17.
(2) A settlement arrived at by agreement between the employer and a
trade union otherwise than in the course of conciliation proceedings shall be
binding on the parties to the agreement.42
57. Effective date of settlement, award, etc..- (1) A settlement shall become
effective-
(a) if a date is agreed upon by the parties to the dispute to which it
relates, on such date; and
(b) if a date is not so agreed upon, on the date on which the
memorandum of the settlement is signed by the parties.
(2)  A settlement shall be binding for such period as is agreed upon by
the parties but not exceeding two years, and if no such period is  agreed upon for a
period of one year from the date on which the memorandum of settlement is
signed by the parties to the dispute and shall continue to be binding on the parties
after the expiry of the aforesaid period until the expiry of two months from the
date on which either party informs the other party in writing of its intention no
longer to be bound by the settlement.
(3)  An award given under sub-section (1) of section 54 shall, unless an
appeal against it is preferred to the Tribunal, become effective on such date and
remain effective for such period, not exceeding two years, as may be specified
therein. The Arbitrator, the Labour Court, or, as the case may be, the Tribunal,
shall specify dates from which the award on  various demands shall be effective
and the time limit by which it shall be implemented in each case:
Provided that if, at any time before the expiry of the said period, any party
bound by an award applies to the Labour Court which made the award for
reduction of the said period on the ground that the circumstances in which the
award was made have materially changed, the Labour Court may, by order made
after giving to the other party an opportunity of being heard, terminate the said
period on a date specified in the order.
(4)  A decision of the Tribunal in appeal under sub-section (3) of
section 55 shall be effective from the date of the award.

(5) Notwithstanding the expiry of the period for which an award is to
be effective under sub-section (3), the award shall continue to be binding on the
parties until the expiry of two months from the date on which either party informs
the other party in writing of its intention no longer to be bound by the award.
58. Commencement and conclusion of proceedings.-  (1) A conciliation
proceeding shall be deemed to have commenced on the date on which a notice of
strike or lock-out is received by the Conciliator under section 44.
(2) A conciliation proceeding shall be deemed to have concluded-43
(a) where a settlement is arrived at, on the date on which a
memorandum of settlement is signed by the parties to the
dispute; and
(b) where no settlement is arrived at –
(i) if the dispute is refereed to an arbitrator under
section 47 on the date on which the arbitrator has
given his award or otherwise; or
(ii) on the date on which the period of the notice of
strike or lock-out expires.
(3) Proceedings before a Labour Court shall be deemed to have
commenced-
(a) in relation to an industrial dispute, on the date on which an
application has been made under section 48 or section 50,
or on the date on which it is referred to the Labour Court by
the Provincial Government under section 48 or section 49;
and
(b)  in relation to any other matter, on the date on which it is
referred to the Labour Court.
(4) Proceedings before the Commission in relation to a dispute
referred to it under section 48 or section 49 or to a dispute raised under section 51
shall be deemed to have commenced on the date on which the reference is made
to it or, as the case may be, the dispute is raised before it.
(5) Proceedings before the Commission or a Labour Court shall be
deemed to have concluded on the date on which the award or decision is delivered
under sub-section (1) of section 54.
59. Certain matters to be kept confidential.- There shall not be included in
any report, award or decision under this Act any information obtained by a
Registrar, Conciliator, Labour Court, Arbitrator or Tribunal in the course of any
investigation or inquiry as to a trade union or as to any individual business
(whether carried on by a person, firm or company) which is not available
otherwise than through the evidence given before such authority, if the trade
union, person, firm, or company in question has made a request in writing to the
authority that such information shall be treated as confidential, nor shall such
proceedings disclose any such information without the consent in writing of the
Secretary of the trade union or the person, firm or company in question, as the
case may be:44
Provided that nothing contained in this section shall apply to disclosure of
any such information for the purpose of a prosecution under section 193 of the
Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860).
60. Raising of industrial disputes.- No industrial dispute shall be deemed to
exist unless it has been raised in the prescribed manner by a collective bargaining
agent or an employer.
61. Prohibition of serving notice of strike or lock-out while proceedings
pending.- No notice of strike or lock-out shall be served by any party to an
industrial dispute while any conciliation proceedings or proceedings before an
Arbitrator or a Labour Court or an appeal to the Tribunal under sub-section (3) of
section 55 are or is pending in respect of any matter constituting such industrial
dispute.
62. Powers of Labour Court and Tribunal to prohibit strike, etc..- (1)
When a strike or lock-out in pursuance of an industrial dispute has already
commenced and is in existence at the time when, in respect of such industrial
dispute, there is made to, or is pending before, a Labour Court an application,
under section 50, the Labour Court may, by an order in writing prohibit
continuance of the strike or lock-out.
(2) When an appeal in respect of any matter arising out of an industrial
dispute is preferred to a Tribunal under section 55, the Tribunal may, by an order
in writing, prohibit continuance of any strike or lock-out in pursuance of such
industrial dispute which had already commenced and was in existence on the date
on which the appeal was preferred.
63. Illegal strikes and lock-out.- (1) A strike or lock-out shall be illegal if-
(a) it is declared, commenced or continued without giving to the other
party to the dispute, in the prescribed manner, a notice of strike or
lock-out or before the date of strike or lock-out specified in such
notice, or in contravention of section 61;
(b) it is declared, commenced or continued in consequence of an
industrial dispute raised in a manner other than that provided in
section 60;
(c) it is continued in contravention of an order made under section 48,
section 49, section 62 or sub-section (3) of section 64; or
(d) it is declared, commenced or continued during the period in which
a settlement or award is in operation in respect of any of the
matters covered by a settlement or award.45
(2) A lock-out declared in consequence of an illegal strike and a strike
declared in consequence of an illegal lockout shall not be deemed to be illegal.
64. Procedure in cases of illegal strikes or lock-out.-(1) Notwithstanding
anything contained in any other provision of this Act or in any other law for the
time being in force, an Officer of the Labour Department not below the rank of
Assistant Director Labour Welfare hereinafter in this section referred to as the
Officer, may make enquiries in such manner as he may deem fit into an illegal
strike or illegal lock-out in a factory and make a report to the Labour Court.
(2) After completing the enquiry the Officer shall serve a notice on the
employer and the collective bargaining agent or the registered trade union
concerned with the dispute to appear before the Labour Court on a date to be
fixed by that Court.
(3) The Labour Court may, within ten days following the day on
which it receives a report under sub-section (1), after considering the report and
hearing such of the parties as appear before it, order the strike to be called off or
the lock-out to be lifted.
(4) If the employer contravenes the order of the Labour Court under
sub-section (3) and the Court is satisfied that the continuance of the lock-out is
causing serious hardship to the community or is prejudicial to the national
interest, it may issue an order for the attachment of the factory and for the
appointment of an official receiver for such period as it deems fit, and such period
as may be varied from time to time.
(5) The official receiver shall exercise the powers of management and
may transact business, enter into contracts, give valid discharge of all moneys
received and do or omit to do all such acts as are necessary for conducting the
business of the factory.
(6) The Labour Court may, in appointing and regularizing the work of
an official receiver exercise the powers of a Civil Court under the Code of Civil
Procedure, 1908 (Act V of 1908).
(7) If the workers contravene the order of the Labour Court under sub-
section (3), the Court may pass orders of dismissal against all or any of the
striking workers and, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this
Act, if the Court, after holding such inquiry as it deems fit, records its finding that
any registered trade union has committed or abetted the commission of such
contravention, the finding shall have the effect of cancellation of the registration
of such trade union and debarring all officers of such trade union from holding
office in that or in any other trade union for the un-expired term of their offices
and for the term immediately following:46
Provided that the Court may review its orders if good and sufficient cause
is shown by an affected worker within seven days of such orders of dismissal.
(8) Subject to any rules made by the Provincial Government in this
behalf, the officer may, for the purpose of enquiry under sub-section (1), within
the local limits for which he is appointed, enter with such assistants, if any, being
persons in the service of Pakistan, as he thinks fit, in a factory, where he has
reason to believe an illegal strike or lock-out to be in progress, and make such
examination of the premises and plant and of any registers maintained therein and
take on the spot or otherwise such evidence of persons and exercise such other
powers as he may deem necessary for carrying out the purposes of this section.
(9) The officer shall have authority to call any party to such dispute to
his office or secure his presence in the factory and shall also have the power to
bind any party to the dispute to appear before the Labour Court.
(10)  Where a party to an illegal strike or lock-out, on being required or
bound under this section to appear before the officer or the Labour Court, does
not so appear, the officer or Labour Court, as the case may be, may, besides
taking such other action as may be admissible under this Act, proceed exparte.
65. Conditions of service to remain unchanged while proceedings
pending.-(1) No employer shall, while any conciliation proceedings or
proceedings before an Arbitrator, a Labour Court or Tribunal in respect of an
industrial dispute are pending, alter to the disadvantage of any workman
concerned in such dispute, the conditions of service applicable to him before the
commencement of the conciliation proceedings or of the proceedings before at the
Arbitrator, the Labour Court or Tribunal, as the case may be, nor shall he-
(a) save with the permission of the Conciliator, while any conciliation
proceedings are pending; or
(b) save with the permission of the Arbitrator, the Labour Court of
Tribunal, while any proceedings before the Arbitrator, Labour
Court or Tribunal are pending,
discharge, dismiss or otherwise punish any workman except for misconduct not
connected with such dispute.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), an officer
of a registered trade union shall not, during the pendency of any proceedings
referred to in sub-section (1), be discharged, terminated, dismissed or otherwise
punished for misconduct, except with the previous permission of the Labour
Court.  However, the terms and conditions of the employment secured by the
workers through collective bargaining, agreements, settlements, awards and 47
decisions of Courts shall continue to be binding upon the parties until revised for
betterment of workers.
66. Removal of fixed assets.-  No employer shall remove any fixed assets of
the establishment during the currency of an illegal lockout or a strike which is not
illegal:
Provided that Labour Court may, subject to such conditions as it may
impose, cause to be removed any such fixed assets for safe custody to avoid
damage to such assets due to flood, fire, catastrophe or civil commotion.
67. Protection of certain persons.- (1)  No person refusing to take part or to
continue to take part in any illegal strike or illegal lock-out shall, by reasons of
such refusal, be subject to expulsion from any trade union or to any fine or
penalty or to the deprivation of any right or benefit which he or his legal
representatives would otherwise have been entitled, or be liable to be placed in
any respect, either directly or indirectly, under any disability or disadvantage as
compared with other members of the trade union.
(2) Any contravention of the provisions of sub-section (1) may be
made the subject matter of an industrial dispute, and nothing in the constitution of
a trade union providing the manner in which any dispute between its executive
and members, shall be settled shall apply to any proceedings for enforcing any
right or exemption granted by sub-section (1).  In any such proceeding, the
Labour Court may, in lieu of ordering a person who has been expelled from
membership of a trade union to be restored to membership, order that he be paid
out of the funds of the trade union such sum by way of compensation or damages
as the Court thinks just.
68. Representation of parties.- (1)  A workman who is a party to an
industrial dispute shall be entitled to be represented in any proceedings under this
Act by an officer of a collective bargaining agent and subject to the provisions of
sub-section (2) and sub-section (3) any employer who is a party to an industrial
dispute shall be entitled to be represented in any such proceedings by a person
duly authorized by him.
(2)   No party to an industrial dispute shall be entitled to be represented
by a legal practitioner in any conciliation proceedings under this Act.
(3)   A party to an industrial dispute may be represented by a legal
practitioner in any proceedings before the Labour Court, or before an Arbitrator,
with the permission of the Court or the Arbitrator, as the case may be.
69. Interpretation of settlement and awards.- (1) If any difficulty or doubt
arises as to the interpretation of any provisions of an award or settlement, it shall
be referred to the Tribunal constituted under this Act.48
(2) The Tribunal to which a matter is referred under sub-section (1)
shall after giving the parties an opportunity of being heard, decide the matter, and
its decision shall be final and binding on the parties.
70. Recovery of money due from an employer under settlement or
award.- (1)  Any money due from an employer under a settlement, or under an
award or decision of the Arbitrator, Labour Court or Tribunal may be recovered
as arrears of land revenue or as a public demand if, upon the application of the
person entitled to the money, the Labour Court so directs.
(2) Where any workman is entitled to receive from the employer any
benefit, under a settlement or under an award or decision of the Arbitrator, Labour
Court or Tribunal, which is capable of being computed in terms of money, the
amount at which such benefit shall be computed may, subject to the rule made
under this Act, be determined and recovered as provided for in sub-section (1) and
paid to the workman concerned within a specified date.  Labour Court shall have
the powers of Collector Grade-I and shall exercise such powers of recovery as
determined by it.
71. Performance of functions pending ascertainment of collective
bargaining agent.-  Any act or function which is by this Act required to be
performed by or has been conferred upon a collective bargaining agent may, until
a collective bargaining agent has been certified under the provisions of this Act,
be performed by a registered trade union which has been recognized by the
employer or employers.
72. Penalty for unfair labour practices.- (1)  Whoever contravenes the
provisions of section 10 shall be liable to fine which may extend to twenty
thousand rupees.
(2)  Whoever contravenes the provisions of section 17 shall be liable to
fine which may extend to thirty thousand rupees.
(3)  Whoever contravenes the provisions of section 18, other than those of
clause (d) of sub-section (1) thereof, shall be liable to fine which may extend to
twenty thousand rupees.
(4)  An officer of a trade union, a workman or person other than a
workman who contravenes or abets the contravention of the provisions of clause
(d) of sub-section (1) of section 18 shall be liable to fine which may extend to
thirty thousand rupees.
(5)  Where the person accused of an offence under sub-section (4) is an
officer of a trade union, the National Industrial Relations Commission may, in
addition to any other punishment which it may award to such person under that 49
sub-section, direct that he shall cease to hold the office of such officer and be
disqualified from holding any office in any trade union during the term
immediately following the term in which he so ceases to hold office.
(6)  Whoever contravenes the provisions of section 66 shall be liable to
fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees.
(7)  Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to exclude the jurisdiction of a
Labour Court or the Court of a Magistrate to try a case under this section if it is
authorized to do so by general or special order of the Commission.
73. Penalty for committing breach of settlement.-  Whoever commits any
breach of any term of any settlement, award or decision which is binding on him
under this Act shall be punishable-
(a) for the first offence, with fine which may extend to twenty
thousand rupees; and
(b) or each subsequent offence; with fine which may extend to
fifty thousand rupees.
74. Penalty for failing to implement settlement, etc.-  Whoever willfully
fails to implement any term of any settlement, award or decision which it is his
duty under this Act to implement shall be punishable with a fine which may
extend to twenty thousand rupees, and, in the case of continuing failure, with a
further fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day after the first
during which the failure continues.
75. Penalty for false statement, etc.-  Whoever willfully makes or causes to
be made in any application or other document submitted under this Act or the
rules made there under, any statement which he knows or has reason to believe to
be false, or willfully neglects or fails to maintain or furnish any list, document or
information he is required to maintain or furnish, under this Act or the rules made
there under shall be punishable with fine which may extend to fifty thousand
rupees.
76. Penalty for discharging officer of trade union in certain
circumstances, etc.-  Any employer who contravenes the provision of section 65
shall be punishable with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees.
77. Penalty for embezzlement or misappropriation of funds.-  Any officer
or any employee of a registered trade union, guilty of embezzlement or
misappropriation of trade union funds, shall be liable to a fine, double the amount
found by the Court to have been embezzled or misappropriated.  Upon realization,
the amount of fine may be reimbursed by the Court to the trade union concerned.50
78. Penalty for other offences.-  Whoever contravenes, or fails to comply
with, any of the provisions of this Act shall, if no other penalty is provided by this
Act for such contravention or failure, be punishable with fine which may extend
to five thousand rupees.
79. Offence to be non-cognizable.-  Notwithstanding anything contained in
the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (Act V of 1898) no police officer shall be
competent to arrest without warrant an employer or a worker for an offence under
this Act other than the offence of illegal strike or illegal lock-out continued in
contravention of an order made under sub-section (3) of section 64.
80. Offences by corporation.- Where the person guilty of any offence under
this Act is a company or other body corporate, every director, manager, secretary
or other officer or agent thereof shall, unless he proves that the offence was
committed without his knowledge or consent or that he exercised all due diligence
to prevent the commission of the offence, be deemed to be guilty of such offence:
Provided that, where a company has intimated to Government in writing
the name of any of its directors resident in Pakistan whom it has nominated for
the purpose of this section and the offence is committed while such director
continues to be so nominated, only such director shall be so deemed to be guilty
of such offence.
81. Trial of offences.- Save as provided in this Act, no Court other than a
Labour Court or that of a Magistrate of the first class shall try any offence
punishable under this Act.
82. Indemnity.-  No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie
against any person for anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done
in pursuance of this Act or any rule.
83. Registrar, etc., to be public servants.-  A Registrar, a Conciliator, the
Presiding Officer of a Labour Court, the member of a Tribunal, and the Chairman
and a member of the Commission shall be deemed to be a public servant within
the meaning of section 21 of the Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860).
84. Limitation.- The provisions of section 5 of the Limitation Act, 1908 (IX
of 1908), shall apply in computing the period within which an application is to be
made, or any other thing is to be done, under this Act.
85. Power to make rules.- (1) The Federal Government may make rules for
carrying out the purposes of this Act in relation to the Commission.
(2)  Except as provided in sub-section (1), the Provincial Government
may, in consultation with the Federal Government, make rules for carrying out the
purposes of this Act.51
(3)  Rules make under this section may provide that a contravention
thereof shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees.
86. Transfer of pending proceedings.-  All appeals and applications of any
kind pending in any High Court immediately before the commencement of this
Act shall stand transferred to the Labour Appellate Tribunals from the date of the
commencement of this Act and it shall not be necessary for the Labour Appellate
Tribunals to recall any witness or record any evidence that may have been
recorded.
87. Repeal and savings.-  (1)  The Industrial Relations Ordinance 2002 (XCI
of 2002), is hereby repealed.
(2) Notwithstanding the repeal of the Industrial Relations Ordinance,
2002 (XCI of 2002, hereinafter to be called the repealed Ordinance, and without
prejudice to the provisions of sections 6 and 24 of the General Clauses Act,
1897 (X of 1897)-
(a) every trade union existing immediately before the
commencement of this Act, which was registered under the
repealed Ordinance shall be deemed to be  registered
under this Act and its constitution shall continue in force
until altered or rescinded;
(b) anything done, rules made, notification or order issued,
officer appointed, Court constituted, notice given,
proceedings commenced or other actions taken under the
repealed Ordinance shall be deemed to have been done,
made, issued, appointed, constituted, given, commenced or
taken, as the case may be, under the corresponding
provisions of this Act; and
(c) any document referring to the repealed Ordinance relating
to industrial relations shall be construed as referring to the
corresponding provisions of this Act.
(3) This Act shall, unless repealed earlier, stand repealed on 30th
April,
2010.
88. Former registration offices, officers, etc., to continue.-(1)  The offices
existing at the commencement  of this Act for registration of trade unions shall be
continued as if they had been established under this Act.52
(2)  Any person appointed to any office under, or by virtue of the
provisions of the repealed Ordinance shall be deemed to have been appointed to
that office under or by virtue of this Act.
(3)  Any books of accounts, book, paper, register or document kept under
the provisions of the repealed Ordinance relating to companies shall be deemed
to be part of the books of accounts, book, paper, register or document to be kept
under this Act.
89. Removal of difficulties.- If any difficulty arises in giving effect to any
provisions of this Act, the Federal Government may, by notification in the official
Gazette, make such order, not inconsistent with the provisions, of this Act, as may
appear to it to be necessary for the purpose of removing the difficulty;
Provided that no such power shall be exercised after the expiry of two
years from the coming into force of this Act.53
SCHEDULE
PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES
[See section 2(xxi)]
1. The generation, production, manufacture, or supply of electricity, gas, oil
or water to the public.
2. Any system of public conservancy or sanitation.
3. Hospitals and ambulance services.
4. Fire-fighting service.
5. Any postal, telegraph or telephone service.
6. Railways and Airways.
7. Ports.
8. Watch and Ward Staff and security services maintained in any
establishment.
STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS
The repeal of the Industrial Relations Ordinance, 2002, and enactment of
Industrial Relations Act, 2008 is being placed for approval to give effect inter alia
to the following objects:-
1. to regulate the Government’s vision on dignity of labour,
elimination of animosity and antagonism by fostering a trust-
relationship between employers employee and promoting social
dialogue in the law;
2. to give right of association to the workers employed in Railways
on MOD lines, Pakistan Mint, and in any institution established for
payment of employees’ old-age pensions or for workers’ welfare.
3. to provide free discretion to the trade unions to join or not to join
any federation or confederation, of their own choice;
4. to revive the Labour Appellate Tribunals on persistence demand of
trade unions/federation, in order to ensure speedy disposal of
labour disputes;
SYED KHURSHEED AHMAD SHAH
Minister-in-Charge

9 thoughts on “IRA-2008

  1. M. FAZAL ELAHI

    Please mail me a copy of IRA 2008 Labor Laws.
    Thank you.

    M. FAZAL ELAHI
    Director Marketing & PR
    Preston University
    Islamabad

    Reply
  2. Rasheed khan

    Please mail me a copy of IRA 2010 Labor Laws in urdo.
    Thank you.

    Rasheed khan
    Sr. Vice President
    Employees & Labour Union
    ITTEHAD CHEMICALS LTD

    Reply
  3. Muhammad Arshad

    KINDLY E.MAIL US A COPY OF IRA 2008

    THANK YOU

    (MUHAMMAD ARSHAD)
    EXECUTIVE MEMBER
    FREAU, RTO BAHAWALPUR
    062-9255262

    Reply
  4. abdul sattar

    AOA, Venerable Sir/Madam, Please Send us the copy of IRA-2012 Labour Laws for Kind information and Study.By Email
    Thank you.

    Reply

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